Akand M, Celik O, Avci E, Duman I, Erdogru T. Open, laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: comparative analysis of operative and pathologic outcomes for three techniques with a single surgeon's experience.Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.
To compare outcomes of open (O-), laparoscopic (L-) and robot-assisted laparoscopic (RAL-) radical prostatectomy (RP) performed by the same surgeon.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
From May 1999 to April 2012, 484 RPs were performed by a single surgeon. Patients' data including age, body-mass index, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score of prostate biopsy and prostatectomy specimen, preoperative prostate and specimen volumes, clinical and pathologic stages, operation time, estimated blood loss (EBL), catheterization time, blood transfusion rate were recorded. Prospectively collected data was evaluated retrospectively by statistical analyses.
Of 484 radical prostatectomies, ORP (50), LRP (308) and RALRP (79) done by the same surgeon were included into study. Mean ages were 63.8, 62.7 and 60.3 years for ORP, LRP and RALRP respectively. Operation times for ORP, LRP and RALRP were 255, 208 and 242 minutes. EBL and hospitalization time were 602, 526, 234 mL, and 9.1, 3.2, 3.2 days for ORP, LRP and RALRP, respectively. While a significant advantage was found for EBL and complication rates in RALRP and for operation time in LRP, significant disadvantages were found in terms of catheterization time, hospitalization time, decrease in hemoglobin and blood transfusion in ORP. However, preoperative prostate volume and serum PSA level, oncologic outcomes and positive surgical margins were nearly similar in all operative techniques.
Minimally invasive techniques such as LRP and RALRP are promising techniques with comparable outcomes with ORP. Shorter catheterization time, less blood loss and fewer complication rates can be provided by RALRP.
Jain S, Saxena S, Kumar A. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in India. Meta Gene.
Data from national cancer registries shows that incidence of certain cancers are on rise in India. The cancers which are showing significant increase in incidence rates include prostate, mouth and kidney among male population, corpus uteri, breast and thyroid among female population and lung cancer in both male and female populations. In the present review article we have focused on epidemiology of prostate cancer in Indian subcontinent in terms of incidence, survival, and mortality etc. The article presents the incidence rates, mortality and trends over time for prostate cancer as the data collected from national population based cancer registries. Prostate is the second leading site of cancer among males in large Indian cities like Delhi, Kolkatta, Pune and Thiruvananthapuram, third leading site of cancer in cities like Bangalore and Mumbai and it is among the top ten leading sites of cancers in the rest of the population based cancer registries (PBCRs) of India. The PBCRs at Bangalore (Annual Percentage Change: 3.4%), Chennai (4.2%), Delhi (3.3%), Mumbai (0.9%) and Kamrup Urban District (11.6%) recorded a statistically significant increasing trend in incidence rates over time
Belbase NP1, Agrawal CS, Pokharel PK, Agrawal S, Lamsal M, Shakya VC.Prostate cancer screening in a healthy population cohort in eastern Nepal: an explanatory trial study.Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.
Prostate cancer features a substantial incidence and mortality burden, similarly to breast cancer, and it ranks among the top ten specific causes of death in males.
To explore the situation of prostate cancer in a healthy population cohort in Eastern Nepal.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal from July 2010 to June 2011. Males above 50 years visiting the Surgical Outpatient Department in BPKIHS were enrolled in the study and screening camps were organized in four Teaching District Hospitals of BPKIHS, all in Eastern Nepal. Digital rectal examination (DRE) was conducted by trained professionals after collecting blood for assessment of serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA). Trucut biopsies were performed for all individuals with abnormal PSA/DRE findings.
A total of 1,521 males more than 50 years of age were assessed and screened after meeting the inclusion criteria. The vast majority of individuals, 1,452 (96.2%), had PSA ≤4.0 ng/ml. Abnormal PSA (>4 ng/ml) was found in 58 (3.8%). Abnormal DRE was found in 26 (1.72%). DRE and PSA were both abnormal in 26 (1.72%) individuals. On the basis of raised PSA or abnormal DRE 58 (3.84%) individuals were subjected to digitally guided trucut biopsy. Biopsy report revealed benign prostatic hyperplasia in 47 (3.11%) and adenocarcinoma prostate in 11 (0.73%). The specificity of DRE was 66.0%with a sensitivity of 90.9% and a positive predictive value of 38.5%. The sensitivity of PSA more than 4ng/ml in detecting carcinoma prostate was 100% and the positive predictive value for serum PSA was 19.0%.
The overall cancer detection rate in this study was 0.73% and those detected were locally advanced. Larger community-based studies are highly warranted specially among high-risk groups.
2012 Jun; 3(2): 120–129.
Adhyam M, Gupta AK. A Review on the Clinical Utility of PSA in Cancer Prostate.Indian J SurgOncol.
Prostate cancer has come to share the oncological centrestage among male cancers. The availability of Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, PSA, as a marker has encouraged it’s use to diagnose both cancer and cancer recurrence. Some clarity is required about its precise role in clinical practice. The available literature on Prostate Specific Antigen was reviewed; Articles were reviewed for content, applicability to the problem at hand, availability of data about sensitivity and specificity of values, refinements in measurements and finally for impact of screening programmes using these values on survival and quality of life. The data in the literature was critically re-evaluated and analysed to draw reasonable conclusions. Serum PSA measurements show variable reliability when it comes to diagnosis of Prostate cancer, given the dynamics of PSA physiology. Surrogate measures like PSA density, PSA velocity, free-to-complexed PSA ratio, percentage Pro-PSA, etc., have been used to improve the predictive utility of this assay for Prostate cancer. The ability of PSA to detect those cancers that will cost life, and thereby permit early curative treatment, is as yet unclear. It’s most definitive role appears to be in diagnosing recurrences after adequate surgical treatment, and in evaluating response to treatment.
Al B. Barqawi, Kevin J. Krughoff, and Khadijah Eid, “Current Challenges in Prostate Cancer Management and the Rationale behind Targeted Focal Therapy,” Advances in Urology, vol. 2012, Article ID 862639, 7 pages, 2012.
Among men, prostate cancer has a high prevalence, with relatively lower cancer-specific mortality risk compared to lung and colon cancer. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has increased prostate cancer awareness since its implementation as a screening tool almost 25 years ago, but, due to the largely indolent course of this disease and the unspecific nature of the PSA test, increased incidence has largely been associated with cancers that would not go on to cause death (clinically insignificant), leading to an overdiagnosis challenge and an ensuing overtreatment consequences.